Learning Goal: I’m working on a history question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.Part One: Manifest Destiny.1. Summarize the section “I. Introduction” located in the textbook chapter, Manifest Destiny.2. Describe the three beliefs of Manifest Destiny. 3. Provide two examples of American westward expansion before 1845 and explain how they support Manifest Destiny. 4. How did Anglo-American settlement in Mexican Texas influence Texas independence? 5. How did Manifest Destiny affect Mexico? 6. Write a single-source analysis on “John O’Sullivan Declares America’s Manifest Destiny, 1845” located in the Manifest Destiny Reader.7. Write a single-source analysis on the “Manifest Destiny painting, 1872” located in the Manifest Destiny Reader. When analyzing images, you need to describe them. Part Two: The Sectional Crisis. 1. Summarize the section “V. From Sectional Crisis to National Crisis” located in the textbook chapter, The Sectional Crisis. 2. Write a single-source analysis on a primary source of your choice located in The Sectional Crisis Reader.3. Write a single-source analysis on a primary source of your choice located in The Sectional Crisis Reader. The READING PART :Part 1: Manifest DestinyDuring the early nineteenth century, American fur traders had engaged in a lucrative trade with Western Indian tribes. The interactions between the traders and Indians created a “middle ground” in which trade and cultural interaction prospered. By the early 1830s, however, this distinctive multiracial society was in decline. The fur trade declined as over-trapping decimated beaver populations and changing tastes made consumers less eager to purchase furs. By the mid-1840s, the world of fur trappers was gone. Americans began viewing the West as a region that had to be incorporated into an expanding democratic nation. Additional land would help reserve the ideal of a yeoman republic of honest and independent farmers that would now stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Americans embraced westward expansion as both their destiny and a practical necessity given the nation’s growing population. The rights of the indigenous Indian tribes of these regions mattered little to the champions of westward expansion. Even many sympathetic to Indian civilizations believed they were doomed to extinction. The conquest and settlement of the West became an important theme for artists who helped portray the West for those Americans who did not make the trek westward. Many artists memorialized an ideal version of western expansion, helping to forge important American myths about intrepid pioneers taming a frontier wilderness. To stabilize and secure the territories that bordered the United States, Mexico adopted policies that transformed its northern provinces in the West and Texas. Changes were made in how Indians were treated under the old colonial system in California and New Mexico, and Mexico opened Texas to American settlers in the 1820s. But the Americans in Texas became a source of discord for Mexico. Committed to slavery and reluctant to adopt Mexican ways, the Americans fomented an uprising of settlers that created the Republic of Texas. Despite opposition from abolitionists and some Whigs, the United States eventually annexed Texas. Rather than mark the end of expansionist sentiments, the annexation only whetted the appetite of proponents of expansionism. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico. The war proved unpopular with some Americans but resulted in an American victory and seizure of northern Mexico, vastly increasing the size of the United States. The Mexican American War (also referred to as The Mexican War) lasted only two years and ended in a resounding victory for the United States. America now controlled most of northern Mexico. Although supporters of Manifest Destiny had seen geographic expansion as a panacea for the nation’s economic and social problems, few could force how the defeat of Mexico and acquisition of new lands would usher in more intense political conflict. The debate over whether to allow slavery in the territories gained from Mexico would strain the two-party system, splitting Whigs and Democrats into Northern and Southern wings. http://www.americanyawp.com/text/12-manifest-desti…http://www.americanyawp.com/reader/manifest-destiny/Part 2: The Sectional CrisisSummary:It is tempting to view the decade of the 1850s with an eye toward the impending firestorm of 1861. However, in the early 1850s, few Americans could have anticipated the Civil War. Moreover, at mid-century, the United States was going through a period of rapid transition. New developments such as railroads, the factory system, and more efficient farm equipment led to significant changes in regional economies and began to give form to an emerging national economy. Migration into the Midwest accelerated. Slavery shaped the lives of all Southerners, though most whites were not plantation owners or slaveholders. In the North, an emerging free-labor ideology gained the support of growing numbers of voters. Meanwhile, the annexation of land in the Southwest and West and the conquest of Indians on the Plains produced wrenching social upheavals for Native Americans in those regions. Thus, despite the country’s great regional diversity in terms of local economies and the predominance of certain cultural groups, the whole nation was forced to confront labor and property ownership problems in a rapidly changing society. In the early 1850s, proslavery forces maintained firm control over all branches of the federal government. This derived largely from the “three-fifths clause” of the Constitution, which gave disproportionate representation to the slave states, where each slave was counted as three-fifths of a person to increase southern representation in Congress. Nevertheless, southern planters felt increasingly defensive as the country expanded westward. They warned against “the abolition excitement,” which would necessarily upset the delicate balance between slave and free states. Gradually, this tension between southern strength and southern fears led to the fraying and then unraveling of the Jacksonian American party system, which had relied on a truce maintained between Whigs and Democrats on the issue of slavery. A new party, the Republicans, fused the democratic idealism and economic self-interest of native-born Northerners in such a powerful way that white Southerners believed that the institution of slavery was in danger of succumbing to the Yankee onslaught. Only a small subset of Americans–adult white men–participated directly in forming new political parties that set the terms for congressional debates over territorial expansion and slavery. Nevertheless, during the 1850s, increasing numbers of ordinary people were drawn into the escalating conflict over the South’s “peculiar institution” as some Northerners mounted concerted challenges, violent as well as peaceful, to the Fugitive Slave Law. The western territory of Kansas became a bloody battleground as abolitionists and proslavery forces fought for control of the new state government. Sites of struggle over the slavery issue also included the streets of Boston, the Supreme Court of the United States, political rallies in Illinois, and a federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia. No longer would the opposing sides confine their disagreements to congressional debates over the admission of new states. Nor would words be the only weapons. The country was rushing headlong into nationwide armed conflict.http://www.americanyawp.com/text/13-the-sectional-…http://www.americanyawp.com/reader/the-sectional-c…How The Civil War Got Its StartPrintOn a Sunday night in October 1859, John Brown and nineteen other men (including at least five African Americans) launched a daring attack on the federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia. They had received guns and moral support from some of the North’s leading abolitionists. They planned to raid the arsenal and distribute firearms to slaves in the surrounding area, thereby inciting a general rebellion that, they hoped, would engulf the rest of the South. The Virginia militia and a U.S. Marines force, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Lee, captured Brown and his surviving followers, but not before the insurrectionist had killed seven people and injured ten others. Brown was convicted of treason against the United States to raid on the federal arsenal, murder, inciting an insurrection. On December 2, 1859, before being led to the gallows, Brown handed a scrap of paper to one of his guards: “I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land: will never be purged away: but with Blood.” Brown failed as the instigator of a slave rebellion, but he succeeded as a prophet. The raid on Harpers Ferry cast a shadow over the party conventions held in the summer of 1860. By then, it was apparent that the national party system had all but disintegrated. Southerners in effect seceded from the Democratic Party by walking out of their Charleston Convention rather than supporting Stephen Douglas as a candidate for president. Within a few weeks, representatives of the North and from the South reconvened in separate conventions in Baltimore. Northerners nodded to Douglas, and Southerners chose as their standard-bearer John C. Breckinridge, a proponent of extending slavery into the territories and annexing Cuba. Representing the discredited strategy of compromise was the candidate of the Constitutional Union party, John Bell of Tennessee. In Chicago, the Republicans lined up behind Abraham Lincoln. They agreed on a platform that included measures to boost economic growth, a proposed protective tariff, a transcontinental railroad, internal improvements, and free homesteads for western farmers. Yet Republicans gave little hope to other groups demanding the rights and protections that flowed from American citizenship. Spanish-speaking residents of California, Chinese immigrants, free people of color throughout the North, Indian tribes from North Carolina to the northwestern states, the wives and daughters of men all over the country–these groups were not included in the Republican’ grand design for a country based on the principles of free labor. Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860, although he received support from only 40 percent of the men who cast ballots. Lincoln won the electoral college, and he also received a plurality of the popular vote. However, ten states in the South had refused to list him on the ballot; he received almost no votes in that region of the country. Stephen Douglas won almost 30 percent of the popular vote; together, Douglas and Breckenridge outpolled Lincoln (2.2 million votes to 1.85 million). Nevertheless, the new president had swept New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and the upper Midwest. The regional interests of North and South took precedence over national political parties. By the end of 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and the nation headed toward war. List of Topics and Sub-Modules for How The Civil War Got Its Start
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