Moment of Crisis Reflection 5: An American Empire No unread replies.No replies. Moral Map of North America” USA, 1854: PropagandaPosters Expansion and Power “American imperialism” is a term that refers to the economic, military, and cultural influence of the United States on other countries. First popularized during the presidency of James K. Polk, the concept of an “American Empire” was made a reality throughout the latter half of the 1800s. During this time, industrialization caused American businessmen to seek new international markets in which to sell their goods. In addition, the increasing influence of social Darwinism led to the belief that the United States was inherently responsible for bringing concepts such as industry, democracy, and Christianity to less developed “savage” societies. The combination of these attitudes and other factors led the United States toward imperialism. Open Door policy | Purpose, Meaning, Significance, & Facts | Britannica American imperialism is partly rooted in American exceptionalism, the idea that the United States is different from other countries due to its specific world mission to spread liberty and democracy. This theory often is traced back to the words of 1800s French observer Alexis de Tocqueville, who concluded that the United States was a unique nation, “proceeding along a path to which no limit can be perceived.” Pinpointing the actual beginning of American imperialism is difficult. Some historians suggest that it began with the writing of the Constitution; historian Donald W. Meinig argues that the imperial behavior of the United States dates back to at least the Louisiana Purchase. He describes this event as an, “aggressive encroachment of one people upon the territory of another, resulting in the subjugation of that people to alien rule.” Here, he is referring to the U.S. policies toward Native Americans, which he said were, “designed to remold them into a people more appropriately conformed to imperial desires.” Assignment Details Read This First, Identify and share at least one primary source relating to moments of crisis that emerged as a result of American expansion across North America, and its increased overseas influence. Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 U.S.-Dakota War California Genocide/Sand Creek Massacre Commodore Perry’s Expedition to Japan U.S. Involvement in China’s Opium Wars Ostend Manifesto and Cuban Annexation The primary resource you select can range from (but is not limited to) any of the following: Artistic Works Books Congressional Records Diary/Journal Entries Letters/Manuscripts Maps Magazines/Newspapers Political Cartoons Speeches Tips Suggestion, For additional resources in finding or identifying related primary source materials, you can click on any of the links below. You are also encouraged to use any other outside resources you are able to engage with. Library of Congress: Maps of Liberia (Links to an external site.) Mr. Marcy, the Cuban Question and the Ostend Manifesto.pdf Download Mr. Marcy, the Cuban Question and the Ostend Manifesto.pdf Three Letters Relating to the Perry Expedition to Japan.pdf Download Three Letters Relating to the Perry Expedition to Japan.pdf Beginnings of the American Colonization Society (Links to an external site.) Liberian Declaration of Independence (Links to an external site.) 1854 Ostend Manifesto (Links to an external site.) 1856 Guano Islands Act (Links to an external site.) Treaty of Tianjin Between the Empire of China and United States, 1858 (Links to an external site.) Assignment Second, submit your chosen source by uploading the relevant file either as a word document or text box submission. Be sure to include the following: Upload onto Canvas a primary source that will help facilitate a class wide discussion relevant to that week’s given theme. Provide a short 50-100-word explanation of your chosen source and its significance. Ask at least one leading question based on your source that your classmates can answer. Be prepared to briefly explain and discuss your source during our class meeting. Do This Third: Read Inskeep, pgs. xi-xxix; 165-238; Then, select any one of the following resources listed below: *Each of the secondary sources listed in this activity will closely relate to our class’ discussion in regards to the expansion of American influence overseas, or its acquisition of new territories in the American West and beyond. Articles Loretta Fowler, “Arapaho and Cheynne Perspectives- From the 1851 Treaty to the Sand Creek Massacre.pdf Download Loretta Fowler, “Arapaho and Cheynne Perspectives- From the 1851 Treaty to the Sand Creek Massacre.pdf Neville and Anderson, “The Diminishment of the Great Sioux Reservation- Treaties, Tricks, and Time”.pdf Download Neville and Anderson, “The Diminishment of the Great Sioux Reservation- Treaties, Tricks, and Time”.pdf Cahterine Price, “Lakotas and EuroAmericans- Contrasted Concepts of ‘Chieftainship’ and Decision Making.pdf Download Cahterine Price, “Lakotas and EuroAmericans- Contrasted Concepts of ‘Chieftainship’ and Decision Making.pdf Haroon Kharem, “The American Colonization Society”.pdf Download Haroon Kharem, “The American Colonization Society”.pdf Eugene Van Sickle, “Reluctant Imperialists- The U.S. Navy and Liberia”.pdf Download Eugene Van Sickle, “Reluctant Imperialists- The U.S. Navy and Liberia”.pdf Brandon Mills, “”The United States of Africa”- Liberian Independence and the Contested Meaning of a Black Republic”.pdf Download Brandon Mills, “”The United States of Africa”- Liberian Independence and the Contested Meaning of a Black Republic”.pdf Martha Chaiklin, “Monopolists to Middlemen- Dutch Liberalism and American Imperialism in the Opening of Japan”.pdf Download Martha Chaiklin, “Monopolists to Middlemen- Dutch Liberalism and American Imperialism in the Opening of Japan”.pdf Rodriguez and Targ, “US Foreign Policy towards Cuba- Historical Roots, Traditional Explanations and Alternative Perspectives”.pdf Download Rodriguez and Targ, “US Foreign Policy towards Cuba- Historical Roots, Traditional Explanations and Alternative Perspectives”.pdf Documentaries/Lectures Colorado Experience: The Sand Creek Massacre What would lead approximately 675 volunteer soldiers to attack a peaceful settlement of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians in the Southeastern Colorado Territory? On November 29, 1864, Colonel John Chivington led a group to do just that, resulting in the deaths of over two hundred men, women, and children. This episode revisits the horrific events and uncovers the history 150 years later. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDnPT1qYa64&ab_channel=RockyMountainPBS (Links to an external site.) Oregon Experience: Broken Treaties For thousands of years, more than 60 Native American tribes lived in Oregon’s diverse environmental regions. At least 18 languages were spoken across hundreds of villages. This civilizational fabric became unraveled in just a few short decades upon contact with white settlers in the 19th century. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iHq6ncJJ35w&ab_channel=OPB (Links to an external site.) How to Hide an Empire: The Story of the Greater United States Look at a map of the United States and you’ll see the familiar cluster of states in North America, plus Hawai’i and Alaska in boxes. But what about Puerto Rico? What about American Samoa? The country has held overseas territory–lands containing millions of U.S. nationals–for the bulk of its history. They don’t appear often in textbooks, but the outposts and colonies of the United States have been central to its history. Boston Public Library President David Leonard and talks with Daniel Immerwahr to explore what U.S. history would look like if it weren’t just the history of the continental states but of all U.S. land: the Greater United States. They are joined by Garrett Dash Nelson, Curator Of Maps And Director Of Geographic Scholarship at the Leventhal Map Center. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRVF9FJLUfY&ab_channel=GBHForumNetwork (Links to an external site.) Guarding the World’s Guano: A Story of Ecology and Economy Join professor Scott A. Taylor as he shares a fascinating presentation on the ecological and economic significance of guano in South America. The nutrient rich Humboldt Current flows along the coasts of Peru and Chile and supports some of the largest concentrations of schooling fish in the world. These fish provide food for millions of seabirds and support the world’s largest seabird colonies. Starting with the Inca and continuing to the present day, the droppings (guano) produced by these birds were used to fertilize crops. More recently, the concentrated nitrogen in guano was used to produce gun powder. Astoundingly, the value of the guano industry exceeded 13 billion USD at its peak. Initially mismanaged, the ecologically and economically unique “guano islands” are now under strict protection by the Peruvian government. However, competition with contemporary fishing fleets threatens the long-term persistence of the seabird and marine mammal populations that these islands support. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0NJDL_JHK04&ab_channel=AspenCenterforEnvironmentalStudies (Links to an external site.) Podcasts NPR: The Story of American Imperialism American presidents like to describe the United States as a force for freedom and independence in the world. Historian Daniel Immerwahr says there are also plenty of times in our history when we’ve subjugated and ruled foreign lands, sometimes with bloody conquests. Today, roughly 4 million people live in the American territories of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands. Immerwahr’s new book, ‘How to Hide an Empire,’ looks at the history of and forces behind US territorial expansion. Scene on Radio: American Empire “America” and “empire.” Do those words go together? If so, what kind of imperialism does the U.S. practice, and how has American empire changed over time? History That Doesn’t Suck: Indian Wars: The U.S. Dakota War “To be hanged by the neck until he is dead.” This is the story of the US-Dakota War. The most eastern of the three major Sioux peoples, the Dakota are indigenous to Minnesota. They’ve lived beside trappers, fur traders, and the like, for quite a while (salut, les Canadiens-français). But now, more white settlers are showing and setting up farms, and American officials are buying lands in exchange for long-term payments. But what happens when those payments are late? Shorted? Meanwhile, traditional hunting grounds are gone. Amid these tensions, four hungry Dakota men on a failed hunt kill two settler families. Other settlers only see a seemingly random act of murder; The Dakota see men pushed beyond their limits. A war ensues. The settlers win quickly, but suffer hundreds of deaths in the process. Now questions arise: Are warriors guilty of murder? Are some guilty of massacring? Many Minnesotans say yes to both, and over 300 Dakota men are sentenced to death. https://podtail.com/podcast/history-that-doesn-t-suck/77-the-indian-wars-part-1-the-u-s-dakota-war/ (Links to an external site.) Announcements Fourth, Submit a 300-500 word review of your selected secondary resource in the class discussion board. Your review should be written as a reflective essay, and not a direct question and answer. To receive full credit for this assignment, include a general summary of the source you selected, followed by a close analysis of your own perspectives and insights from your chosen article, lecture, podcast, or documentary. You do not have to directly answer each question listed below, but instead use these questions as a guideline for how to structure your essay. A very brief summary (no more than 50 words ) that explains the premise of your chosen source. In your opinion, who is the intended of your chosen media source? Do the content creators succeed or fail in connecting to this audience? Your response/reaction to the film. Here you can discuss the following: What did learn and what you would like to learn more about? Did you enjoy the structure/presentation of your chosen media or did it fail to keep your attention? Were there any details that you found especially surprising or interesting? What perspective or point of view do the content creators take when presenting your chosen media? In your opinion is there a particular moral, political, or social ideology that your source is in on the side of? Are there any individuals or groups showcased in your media source in a positive or negative light? Do you feel that your source was balanced in presenting multiple perspectives, or mostly one sided? Discuss at least one place within your chosen source where the information/presentation could be improved. This can include: Describing at least one blind spot or missed opportunity your source could have addressed. Places where the content creators could have provided more information. Identify at least one instance of bias (a preference toward one point of view over another) that occurred in the source. This could be from the way the film is presented, an explanation given by one of the experts interviewed, or the way the information is packaged. Note: There will always be occurrences of bias in everything you watch in this class. Becoming aware of how a preferred point of view can inform the way a story is told is one of the primary goals of this course. (Optional) Where possible, discuss how the topics brought up in the film relate to subjects covered during our lectures. Note: Several of the sources selected may cover a time period or topic that extends beyond the material we have covered thus far in our lectures. Instead of writing along the lines of “we have not discussed this in class,” do your best to
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