Learning Goal: I’m working on a anatomy multi-part question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.The purpose of this lab is to provide you with a dissection experience in which you will be able to examine:the superficial and internal structures of bones and movable joints.
how joints move bones and how muscles and tendons move joints.
how ligaments protect, support, and stabilize joints.
The discoveries you will make on the chicken are what you’d expect to find on the human, even though birds are avian and not mammals. We can apply biological principles from one vertebrate (chicken) to another vertebrate (human).MaterialsYou will need:Your textbook and/or Photographic Body Atlas
Two raw chicken drumsticks and one whole raw chicken wing
Camera (digital or cell phone)
HintsBefore you begin, study the anatomy of a long bone in your textbook and/or Photographic Body Atlas.
To avoid cross-contamination, be sure to wash your hands with soap and water before touching your camera, pens, pencils, papers, books, or voice recorders, and after touching the dissection specimens. Do not touch your eyes, nose, mouth, or any other part of your face during this examination.
Be sure to perform your examination near a sink equipped with soap, running water, and clean towels because you will need to wash your hands multiple times during this lab.
Take pictures as you perform the dissection. Be sure to find out the minimal focal distance or your pictures will be blurry (out of focus). Blurry pictures are unacceptable; lab reports without pictures are also unacceptable.
Remember that dissection labs require patience, you must pay attention to detail, and make careful observations. Write down (or record on tape) what you observe and discover as you dissect.
Answer questions as you proceed step-by-step through the procedure. Record your answers and include them in your submission document .
VerificationTake a selfie with your specimen to include in your submission document . Additionally, write your name and date on a notecard or piece of paper. Please place it visibly in ALL photos for verification. Photos without verification will not be accepted, and students have failed the assignment in the past for forgetting this step. Part A: Chicken Bone Dissection Procedure CAUTION: Raw chicken may be contaminated by Salmonella and/or other disease-causing organisms. Wear gloves and keep your hands away from your face and mouth throughout this investigation.
Read the instructions for this dissection TWICE before beginning.
Boil one chicken drumstick and leave the other uncooked.
Remove the muscles overlying the two bones by finding their attachment points via tendons. Cut them off one by one.
Identify the following on EACH of the drumsticks: tibio -tarsus (equivalent to the tibia in humans)
Separate the two bones.
Scrape the surface of the tibia with a sharp knife or a single-edge razor blade. The thin, opaque, membrane that separates is the periosteum. Describe it. What is the function of the periosteum?
Examine the periosteum of an uncooked tibia. Compare its appearance to the cooked periosteum.
Identify the proximal and distal epiphyses of the tibia. They are covered by articular cartilage. What type of cartilage tissue makes the articular cartilage?
What are the functions of the articular cartilage?
Separate the articular cartilage from the epiphysis. How thick is it?
What type of bone tissue underlies the cartilage?
Identify the diaphysis. Is the diaphysis solid or hollow?
What is the name of the cavity?
What kind of tissue do you find in it?
Get a knife and cut the epiphysis. Examine the texture of the spongy bone. The microscopic cavities in spongy bone have red bone marrow. The red marrow is immature blood tissue. It has stem blood cells and immature red and white blood cells.
Label all of the following structures of your specimenstibio -tarsus
Be sure that your verification paper with your name and the date of the dissection is next to your dissected specimen when taking your pictures. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water before touching your phone or camera . Use a digital camera to capture a minimum of two clear, in-focus photographs of your dissected specimen with the aforementioned structures, labeled afterward on your computer using text boxes and arrows. (Hint: This means during your dissection, make sure you take a picture of all the structures so that you can label them on your computer afterward). Alternately, you can use your probe to point at each structure, one per picture.Part B: Chicken Joint DissectionProcedureRead the instructions for this dissection TWICE before beginning.
Remove the skin from the wing.
Identify the arm (humerus), the forearm (radius and ulna), and the modified hand (carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges) of the chicken wing. Notice that several bones of the hand have fused together into fewer, smaller, separate bones. This adaptation of the hand helps the bird to have lighter wings.
Position the wing as you would find it on the chicken. Identification of the sides is important if you were to describe the location of the muscles that move the elbow. Locate, identify, label and photograph:anterior side
Locate the elbow and study the structures that move it. Identify the parts of the wing that correspond to the arm, the forearm, and the hand. Pull on the muscles that flex the elbow (brings the forearm closer to the upper arm). Notice the location of the flexor muscles.In which part of the wing are these muscles located?
Examine the position of their tendons and how they pass over the joint.Do these tendons insert at the proximal or distal end of the forearm?
Next, pull on the extensor muscles (straightens the wing) and notice their location in relation to the joint. Notice the position of these tendons in relation to the elbow joint.Do the tendons insert at the proximal or distal end of the forearm?
Cut the tendons and carefully examine the extracapsular ligaments of the elbow.Do they look and feel the same as or different than the tendons?
Could you distinguish them if they were separated?
What kind of tissue makes up tendons and ligaments?
Pull on a tendon. Is it strong or weak?
Is it elastic like a rubber band?
Next, cut the ligaments and open one side of the elbow joint. See how the articulating ends of the bones interact with one another. Identify the articular cartilages. What is their function?
What happens to the cartilage in rheumatoid arthritis.
Label the following structures of your specimen:humerus
modified hand bones
flexor tendon insertion
extensor tendon insertion
extracapsular ligaments (elbow joint)
Be sure that your verification paper with your name and the date of the dissection is next to your dissected specimen when taking your pictures. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water before touching your phone or camera. Use a digital camera to capture a minimum of two clear, in-focus photographs of your dissected specimen with the aforementioned structures, labeled afterwards on your computer using text boxes and arrows. (Hint: This means during your dissection, make sure you take a picture of all the structures so that you can label them on your computer afterward). Alternately, you can use your probe to point at each structure, one per picture.Preparing for SubmissionGenerate a SINGLE MS Word or PDF document for BOTH Parts A & B using the pictures you took. Did you take your SELFIE with the specimen? It should be the very first photo in your document. Please label your photos (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.) so that they can be referenced when grading. You also have questions you were asked in procedures. These answers should be included as well in your document.
Requirements: until completed | .doc file
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