In what ways has maintenance factored in the histories of technology we have covered thus far in the course?

PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING 5 QUESTIONS: (First four questions max 250 words, last question max 500 words). Once a professor is selected, I will send all necessary material to answer the questions! 1. In his essay “Technological Revolutions and the Gutenberg Myth,” Scott Cook shows us how the introduction of a single technology cannot simply change the course of history. “Such changes,” he writes, “are not caused by the appearance of a single gadget; they are constituted in multiple, mutually influenced technological and social innovations” (79). In short, technologies are not the factor in historical/social change, but they certainly are a factor. If technologies alone cannot drive history, what are some ways they have factored in historical/sociological change? In your answer, you must reference at least two readings and one lecture 2. Langdon Winner has provided us an important theoretical framework for thinking about how politics have been embedded in, and/or have strongly influenced the development of, certain technologies and technological systems. Focusing on Ruth Cowan’s chapter “The Invention of Housework,” in what ways does Winner’s theory help explain the changes in domestic labor after the introduction of the cooking stove? 3. In many ways, the linked themes of power and control have structured much of how we understand our relationships to technologies and systems – both past and present. How and why are these two themes so prominent in the ways in which we have come to understand the historical and social impact of technologies and/or technological systems? In the answer, you must reference at least two readings and one lecture. 4. The theme of innovation is another important theme that has permeated much of the course thus far. A number of the scholars covered in the course have either explicitly or implicitly discussed innovation in their scholarship, and the process of innovation is important in understanding the history of technology. In what ways has innovation been an important concept in understanding changes in, and historical continuities related to, the use and development of particular technologies? The answer must reference at least three of the readings. 5. In their chapter “Technology after Innovation,” Vinsel and Russell want readers to consider maintenance as an important historical and social phenomenon. They tell us that, “…much of human history is [comprised of] stories of stability: of how societies coordinate labor to maintain the large-scale public systems we’ve relied upon since ancient times” (39). In many ways, maintenance is theme we have seen through the first half of the course – and will continue to see moving forward. Taking a page from Vinsel and Russell, answer the following: In what ways has maintenance factored in the histories of technology we have covered thus far in the course? The answer to this question must have a thesis, evidence from course materials, and a conclusion. The answer cannot exceed 500 words and cannot be less than 400 – no exceptions.

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